holiday in Spain 054.JPG Salvador Dali Museum, Figures,Spain (photo: Gosia Głowacka, 11.05.2012)

The saxophone (also referred to as the sax) is a family of woodwind instruments. Saxophones are usually made of brass and played with a single-reed mouthpiece similar to that of the clarinet.The saxophone family was invented by the Belgian instrument maker Adolphe Sax in 1840. Adolphe Sax wanted to create a group or series of instruments that would be the most powerful and vocal of the woodwinds, and the most adaptive of the brass instruments, that would fill the vacant middle ground between the two sections. He patented the saxophone on June 28, 1846, in two groups of seven instruments each. Each series consisted of instruments of various sizes in alternating transposition. The series pitched in B♭ and E♭, designed for military bands, have proved extremely popular and most saxophones encountered today are from this series. Instruments from the so-called “orchestral” series, pitched in C and F, never gained a foothold, and the B♭ and E♭ instruments have now replaced the C and F instruments when the saxophone is used in an orchestra.

The saxophone is used in classical music (such as concert bands, chamber music, and solo repertoires), military bands, marching bands, and jazz (such as big bands and jazz combos). Saxophone players are called saxophonists.

The saxophone was developed in 1846 by Adolphe Sax, a Belgian instrument maker, flautist, and clarinetist. Born in Dinant and originally based in Brussels, he moved to Paris in 1842 to establish his musical instrument business. Prior to his work on the saxophone, he had made several improvements to the bass clarinet by improving its keywork and acoustics and extending its lower range. Sax was also a maker of the then-popular ophicleide, a large conical brass instrument in the bass register with keys similar to a woodwind instrument. His experience with these two instruments allowed him to develop the skills and technologies needed to make the first saxophones. As an outgrowth of his work improving the bass clarinet, Sax began developing an instrument with the projection of a brass instrument and the agility of a woodwind. He wanted it to overblow at the octave, unlike the clarinet, which rises in pitch by a twelfth when overblown. An instrument that overblows at the octave, has identical fingering for both registers.

Sax created an instrument with a single-reed mouthpiece like a clarinet, conical brass body like an ophicleide, and some acoustic properties of both the horn and the clarinet.[clarification needed]

Having constructed saxophones in several sizes in the early 1840s, Sax applied for, and received, a 15-year patent for the instrument on June 28, 1846. The patent encompassed 14 versions of the fundamental design, split into two categories of seven instruments each, and ranging from sopranino to contrabass. Although the instruments transposed at either F or C have been considered “orchestral”, there is no evidence that Sax intended this. As only three percent of Sax’s surviving production were pitched in F and C, and as contemporary composers used the E♭ alto and B♭ bass saxophone freely in orchestral music, it is almost certain that Sax experimented to find the most suitable keys for these instruments, settling upon instruments alternating between E♭ and B♭ rather than those pitched in F or C, for reasons of tone and economy (the saxophones were the most expensive wind instruments of their day). The C soprano saxophone was the only instrument to sound at concert pitch. All the instruments were given an initial written range from the B below the treble staff to the F, one space above the three ledger lines above staff, giving each saxophone a range of two and a half octaves.

Sax’s patent expired in 1866; thereafter, numerous saxophonists and instrument manufacturers implemented their own improvements to the design and keywork. The first substantial modification was by a French manufacturer who extended the bell slightly and added an extra key to extend the range downwards by one semitone to B♭. It is suspected that Sax himself may have attempted this modification. This extension is now commonplace in almost all modern designs, along with other minor changes such as added keys for alternate fingerings. Using alternate fingerings allows a player to play faster and more easily. A player may also use alternate fingerings to bend the pitch. Some of the alternate fingerings are good for trilling, scales, and big interval jumps.

Sax’s original keywork, which was based on the Triebert system 3 oboe for the left hand and the Boehm clarinet for the right, was simplistic and made playing some legato passages and wide intervals extremely difficult to finger, so numerous developers added extra keys and alternate fingerings to make chromatic playing less difficult. While early saxophones had two separate octave vents to assist in the playing of the upper registers just as modern instruments do, players of Sax’s original design had to operate these via two separate octave keys operated by the left thumb. A substantial advancement in saxophone keywork was the development of a method by which the left thumb operates both tone holes with a single octave key, which is now universal on modern saxophones. Further developments were made by Selmer in the 1930s and ’40s, including offsetting tone holes and a revamping of the octave key mechanism, beginning with balanced action instruments and continuing through their celebrated Mark VI line.[citation needed] One of the most radical, however temporary, revisions of saxophone keywork was made in the 1950s by M. Houvenaghel of Paris, who completely redeveloped the mechanics of the system to allow a number of notes (C♯, B, A, G, F and E♭) to be flattened by a semitone simply by pressing the right middle finger. This enables a chromatic scale to be played over two octaves simply by playing the diatonic scale combined with alternately raising and lowering this one digit. However, this keywork never gained much popularity, and is no longer in use.

(source: Wikipedia)


Found online:

`Saxophone, tube, trumpet exist as wind instruments,
and men, women – people often are called thick-headed ‘instruments’ .

(by paradoxical on https://szukaj.cytaty.info/mysli/instrumenty.htm on 14.10.2010)


“Jeannenke Pis”

Jeannenke Pis, Brussels 068.jpgScupture:Denis-Adrien Debouvrie, Brussels, Belgium (phot.: Gosia Głowacka, 26.04.2014)

Jeanneke Pis is a modern fountain and statue in Brussels, which was intended to form a counterpoint to the city’s Manneken Pis, south of the Grand Place.

It was commissioned by Denis-Adrien Debouvrie in 1985 and erected in 1987. The half-metre-high bronze statue depicts a little girl with her hair in short pigtails, squatting and urinating on a blue-grey limestone base.

It is located on the east side of the Impasse de la Fidélité / Getrouwheidsgang (Fidelity Alley), a narrow cul-de-sac some 30 metres long leading northwards off the restaurant-packed Rue des Bouchers / Beenhouwersstraat. The sculpture is now protected by iron bars from vandalism.

(source: Wikipedia)


Riddle: who should piss on the usurpers of power over the female body?



Idea: Günter Demming, Berlin, Germany (Photo: Monika Saczyńska, October 13, 2010) / Rome, Italy (Photo: Monika Saczyńska, October 22, 2011)

The inspiration for the Stolpersteine project was an event related to an earlier project by Günter Demming. In Cologne, in 1990 the artist marked with chalk the route that Cologne Roms and Sinti were led to the place of deportation. Three years later, when he walked the same path again a woman he met on the way told him that no Roms or Sinti had ever lived in that district. That event inspired the artist to create the lasting memorial signs around the city.

The first Stolperstein was laid by Günter Demming in 1997 in Kreuzberg (a district in Berlin). Today, it is already a big project, in which often local communities, schools are engaged. The artist still watches over the project by approving the laying of the new stones based on the provided documentation.

The project aims to restore the memory of the victims of Nazism, including Jews, Roma and Sinti, homosexuals, deserters, people with disabilities, members of political parties. Usually stones are laid in the vicinity of the place where the commemorated person lived. The individual stones are inscribed with first name and surname, date of birth, date of deportation or exile, death date and place, but not the reason why the person was persecuted.

From the very start the project aroused controversy because of the placement of stones in the pavement. According to the Charlotte Knobloch, President of Central Council of Jews in Germany, form of the project is not entirely proper, because it brings to mind trampling the memory of the victims.

The number of stones in Stolpersteine project has already exceeded 20 000. Memorial Stones are located on the sidewalks of many cities in Germany and also in Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Ukraine, the Netherlands and Poland, among others, Wrocław and Słubice.


Martyrdom is not asking for thousands of giant monuments. It is sufficient human memory. Monuments for alleged “martyrs” can be quickly removed, and in the memory of people will nothing remain.

“The Greth Shell Fountain”

Sculpture: Rolf Brem, Zug, Schwizerland (Photo: Gosia Glowacka, 11.05.2016)

The woman who had to carry her drunken husband home

This fountain lies opposite the Liebfrauenkapelle (Chapel of Our Lady). You cannot miss the splashing sound as you approach this picturesque location.

Every year on the occasion of Fasnacht Monday the Guild of Carpenters, Turners and Coopers re-enact the Greth Schell story. Local children enjoy oranges and bread rolls distributed to them on the occasion. The origins of this carnival custom and of the fountain date well back into the 17th century. There are many legends told about the historical figure Margaret Schell, who often had to carry her drunk husband, Peter Schell, home.

The story behind it is actually about a woman called Greth Schell (as in the sculpture) who has to carry home her drunken husband, as he is dressed in his jester’s hat and bearing a rod.
Poland, how long will you still have to carry on your shoulders political clowns, drunk from too much power and feel ashamed because of that?