Sculptor: Jerzy Kędziora, Poland, Olsztyn near Częstochowa (Photo: Malgorzata Sachse, 18.05.2016)

Jerzy Kędziora a.k.a. JotKa (born 1947 in Częstochowa) is also a medallist and a designer of green and urban areas. He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Gdańsk, where from the very beginning he stood in opposition to the artistic canons promoted by the university. His passion for the experiment of kinetic sculptures distinguishes him from other artists of postmodern art, thus placing him among the leading representatives of that period. Jerzy Kędziora is a participant in national and international symposia and festivals, and is currently a teacher at the Jacek Malczewski Art School Complex in Częstochowa.

Kędziora has created a series of sculptures, which have brought him great popularity not only in Poland, but also abroad. The sculptures travelled all over the world and were exhibited at prestigious exhibitions in Miami, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, London, Berlin and Madrid, among others. The artist showed a new direction in sculpture, in which a clever use of the laws of physics and experimentation made the impossible possible, and seemingly heavy and stable forms ephemeral.

For his sculptures, the artist usually uses coloured cold metal: bronze, aluminium. The construction itself is made of glass or carbon fibre. Sometimes, it seems that the figures weigh several tonnes and, suspended on ropes, balance against physics. They are difficult to define unambiguously. Seemingly heavy and stable forms have become, evoking admiration and often also the question: How is this possible? Sculptures suspended freely on ropes, bringing to mind circus art, have already been shown in various parts of the world. The largest scale and fame was achieved by an exhibition presented at the turn of 2008 and 2009 at the International Financial Centre in Dubai (United Arab Emirates).

The artist’s works are recognised by eminent experts and art critics. They are held in the collections of museums and galleries in the country and in Italy, France, Germany, Belgium, the USA, the Vatican, Austria, Bulgaria, and numerous private collectors. For his work he has been honoured with awards of, among others: The Governor of Częstochowa, the President of the City of Częstochowa, the K. Miarki Interregional Award, the Silver Cross of Merit, the Gold Badge of the Sculptors’ Association, the Badge of a Distinguished Cultural Activist, and creative scholarships from the Ministry of Culture and Art. For many years he has worked in the boards of several unions and creative associations. He is an expert of the Ministry of Culture and Art for the evaluation of contemporary art in the field of sculpture. He is a multiple scholarship holder of the Ministry of Culture and Art and currently a member of the World Symposium of Kinetic Sculpture and the Association of Polish Sculptors. For his artistic activities, Jerzy Kędziora received the Honorary Citizenship of Miami in 2015.



Artist: Julita Wójcik, Śląski Park in Chorzów, Poland (Photo: Gosia Sachse, 07.04.2018)

The project called Performance of Freedom, within the framework of which Julita Wójcik designed an interactive multimedia installation entitled “Drone”, is one of the first cultural realizations of the Silesian Park Foundation next to the Coolture Container. The sculpture was placed in 2014 on the traffic circle at the intersection of Aleja Generała Jerzego Ziętka and Aleja Leśna. The current image from the camera is available on the external website.

The DRON is a coamara-shaped sculpture equipped with a camera for online video transmission. It shows how thanks to Internet applications we constantly present what we do and at the same time watch what others do. It illustrates how through the Internet we control and are controlled by the Internet.

DRON is used to watch, peep, observe, monitor and control. DRON is a work of art, which the viewer – observer, is also the object of observation.


What does “freedom” mean to you?


Prague, Czech Republic (Photo: Peter Georg Kozdon, 20.05.2018)

The housefly (Musca domestica) is a fly of the suborder Cyclorrhapha. It is believed to have evolved in the Cenozoic Era, possibly in the Middle East, and has spread all over the world as a commensal of humans. It is the most common fly species found in houses. Adults are gray to black, with four dark, longitudinal lines on the thorax, slightly hairy bodies, and a single pair of membranous wings. They have red eyes, set farther apart in the slightly larger female.

The female housefly usually mates only once and stores the sperm for later use. She lays batches of about 100 eggs on decaying organic matter such as food wastecarrion, or feces. These soon hatch into legless white larvae, known as maggots. After two to five days of development, these metamorphose into reddish-brown pupae, about 8 millimetres (38 inch) long. Adult flies normally live for two to four weeks, but can hibernate during the winter. The adults feed on a variety of liquid or semi-liquid substances, as well as solid materials which have been softened by their saliva. They can carry pathogens on their bodies and in their feces, contaminate food, and contribute to the transfer of food-borne illnesses, while, in numbers, they can be physically annoying. For these reasons, they are considered pests.

In literature

The Impertinent Insect is a group of five fables, sometimes ascribed to Aesop, concerning an insect, in one version a fly, which puffs itself up to seem important. In the Biblical fourth plague of Egyptflies represent death and decay, while the Philistine god Beelzebub‘s name may mean “lord of the flies”. In Greek mythologyMyiagros was a god who chased away flies during the sacrifices to Zeus and Athena; Zeus sent a fly to bite Pegasus, causing Bellerophon to fall back to Earth when he attempted to ride the winged steed to Mount Olympus. In the traditional Navajo religion, Big Fly is an important spirit being.

William Blake‘s 1794 poem “The Fly”, part of his collection Songs of Experience, deals with the insect’s mortality, subject to uncontrollable circumstances, just like humans. Emily Dickinson‘s 1855 poem “I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died” speaks of flies in the context of death. In William Golding‘s 1954 novel Lord of the Flies, the fly is, however, a symbol of the children involved.

Ogden Nash‘s humorous two-line 1942 poem “God in His wisdom made the fly/And then forgot to tell us why.” indicates the debate about the value of biodiversity, given that even those considered by humans as pests have their place in the world’s ecosystems.

(Quelle: Wikipedia)


The appearance of insects, including flies, is an inseparable sign of the arrival of warmer days. This year, I think I’m going even to liking flies too, if only it means the end of winter, and the resulting reduction in colds and illnesses caused by viruses


Bardejov, Słovakia (Photo: Gosia Sachse, 18.08.2017 r.)

Bardejov is a historic small Slovak town, whose square is inscribed on the UNESCO list. It is considered the most beautiful town in Slovakia with rich culture and magnificent architecture. Bardejov is also known as the Hangman’s Town, because, according to legend, there was once an executioner’s school here. Today in the old town we can see a statue of the Hangman, who guards the town and dispenses justice.

They say that the prince who ruled in medieval Bardejov issued a special decree that all dishonesty and thievery would be punished by death. The executioner in Bardejov was a well-known and respected person. It was believed that his authority came from God, in church he sat in a special bench near the altar.


Nowadays, the word “executioner” has a singular pejorative meaning. For victims of domestic violence in particular, the mere evocation of the image of their executioner in their minds causes various anxiety feelings. In this context the billboard slogan “Love each other mom and dad”, promoted by SYCHAR, which has flooded Polish cities in recent days, sounds like a slap in the face of the victims of domestic violence. The emotional manipulation that has been perpetrated in this billboard action is striking. For years, child psychologists have been making a clear diagnosis: for the proper development of a child, love and a sense of security are essential. These two things cannot be provided by a person who uses violence. It doesn’t matter, if it is a physical, psychological, financial, emotional or any other art of violence. Let us protect ourselves and our youngest children and run away from violent people as far as we can.

“Arthur Rubinstein Monument”

Project author: Marcel Szytenchelm, Łódź, Poland (photo: Gosia Sachse, 26.01.2013)

The Artur Rubinstein monument is a part of the Gallery of Great Lodz citizens, which since 1999 has been adorning Piotrkowska Street with bronze outdoor sculptures standing on sidewalks, commemorating famous people associated with Lodz.

The monument was unveiled on 23 September 2000 on the occasion of the World Meeting of Lodz citizens. The author of the project is Marcel Szytenchelm. The monument was placed in front of the tenement house at 78 Piotrkowska Street, where once lived a famous pianist.

The bronze cast figure shows Arthur Rubinstein in a tailcoat, sitting at the piano, whose hands are supported by the keyboard. The raised flap of the instrument resembles a bird’s wing. Next to it, there is a cello key.

Artur Rubinstein’s family protested against the placement of the monument. On behalf of his family, the artist’s daughter Eva Rubinstein sent letters of protest to the City Hall of Lodz and the Chancellery of the Prime Minister of Poland, claiming that the form of the monument and its low artistic value offends the artist’s memory. Eva Rubinstein, due to the presence of the monument, refused to come to Lodz for 6 years to celebrate her father. Among the artists and music circles in Lodz, the sculpture also caused numerous controversies. There are plans to remove the existing monument and place in its place a more artistically valuable work dedicated to the same artist.

Originally, after inserting a coin into the mechanism hidden inside the monument, the device randomly played Chopin’s Concerto in F minor, Tchaikovsky’s Piano Concerto in B flat minor, Chopin’s Waltz in C sharp minor or Chopin’s Polonaise in A flat major. However, after interventions by Sony BMG, which demanded royalties for the played pieces, the piano went silent.

(Quelle: Wikipedia)


20.12.2020 marks the 28th anniversary of the death of an outstanding Polish pianist of Jewish origin.

Arthur Rubinstein lost almost his entire family to the Germans in World War II. As a sign of protest against German crimes, he never performed any concerts in Germany or the GDR. In 1945, during the ceremony of signing the United Nations Charter, in the absence of the Polish flag, he expressed his indignation and ostentatiously played Mazurka Dąbrowski. He preceded the performance with words:

In this room, where great nations gathered to make this world a better place, I do not see the flag of Poland behind which this cruel war was waged.

and he added:

So now I will play the Polish national anthem.

Art, music and patriotism have no nationality, ethnic origin, skin color, sexual orientation or religion. You can love and consider the country you live in as your homeland, take care of the good of the community and come from a completely different country. You can create beautiful music or art, which in the country of origin is not found in the audience, but outside its borders is sought after. All of us, regardless of where we come from, are one genre. Supporting each other we will achieve much more. Let’s not forget about it especially in these difficult times. All the most beautiful things for the upcoming holidays and stay healthy in the New Year.

“Křemílek a Vochomůrka”

Sculptor: Filip Kubeš, Frymburg, Czech Republic (Photo: Gosia Sachse, 20.05.2018)

Pohádky z mechu a kapradí (English: The Tales of Moss and Fern) is a Czechoslovakian animated children’s television series produced from 1968 to 1979. The series focuses on the adventures of two forest people named Křemílek and Vochomůrka, often dealing with certain problems. It was made by Bratři v triku.

The series first premiered on Czechoslovak Television on October 6, 1968. The first season was shot in black and white, with the remainder of the series being shot in color. Due to its success, a second season spanning 13 episodes was produced in 1970.

In 2014, Česká televize announced plans to colorize the first season by 2017. However, only the first 7 episodes were colorized and shown during 2018, with a 16:9 format being added as well.

(Quelle: Wikipedia)


Once upon a time, low-growing people, commonly known as dwarves, who ruled others, aroused sympathy. And today?

“Four musicians from Prague”

Praga, Carol Bridge (fot. Gosia Sachse)

We know very well that music works on us. It can put you in a good mood and lead to tears, calm you down or act on your nerves. But it not only resonates with our mood. It is also an “amplifier” of the message in films, advertisements, etc.

Researchers from the University of Southern California have decided to check out what makes music work for us like this and not differently. They used machine learning.

A prelude to artificial intelligence

It started with collecting material for testing. Scientists needed songs – sad and cheerful. To do so, they searched online music services and discussion forums to find songs marked “sad” and “cheerful” or their synonyms. They wanted to reduce the likelihood that the participants of the survey knew the songs earlier, so they decided to pick out niche songs with a small number of plays from the web.

Score of emotion

The songs were presented to a group of 100 people. Some of the participants were connected to the apparatus testing brain activity, others had their pulse and skin conduction tested (dermal-galvanic reaction – testing changes in skin electrical resistance under the influence of sweat).

Additionally, the songs were analyzed second by second for 74 properties like dynamics, timbre, harmony and rhythm.

All these data were used to train machine learning models. Their task was to find the relationship between the content of the work and the physiological response of the body, and more precisely to determine which of the several dozen properties should be observed to predict the reaction of the body. This would allow to predict how a given piece of work will affect the person who listens to it.

It turned out, for example, that the tone (i.e. the intensity of medium and high frequencies), volume and clarity of rhythm in sad songs affect brain activity. Hue, complexity, clarity of rhythm and predictability of tone are correlated with heart rate changes.

Solo on the listener

Researchers hope that their work in the future will allow them to create powerful models of machine learning capable of predicting how a piece of music will affect our psyche and what reactions it will cause in our body. Practical applications? Music composed with a specific listener in mind, tailored to his or her liking, music suggestively evoking specific emotions, and finally music as a support for psychotherapy.



Let’s support street virtuosos who often delight us with their work. Thanks to them, among others, the world is not so bad. In memory of Genek Loska (*08.01.1975 – † 09.09.2020).

Genek Loska (Pińczów 2013). Quelle: Wikipedia

A short biography of Genek can be found under the link below:

“Baba Yaga”

_DSC7399.JPGPrague, Czech Republic (Photo: Peter Georg Kożdoń, Mai 2018)

6 PLN 70 PLN 70 PLN per day. That’s how much or less people in every fifth family have at their disposal in Poland in 2019, which ist under care of Szlachetna Paczka. Their average monthly income (after deducting the amount of the fixed costs of living) do not exceed PLN 200. However, according to the Central Statistical Office (GUS), a four-person family (2+2) is not able to survive a month for less than 1571 PLN.

20% of the families, which ist under care of Szlachetna Paczka live in apartments in which there’s no bathroom.

>1.2 million children (persons under the age of eighteen) are in Poland at risk of poverty or social exclusion.

PLN 500 or more spends on medicines every fifth family, which ist under care of Szlachetna Paczka, in which at least one sick or disabled person lives.

PLN 31.42 – This is how much the nursing allowance has increased since November 1, 2018. It iss granted for the purpose of partially covering expenses. It is granted for the purpose of partially covering expenses of a person, who need to provide care and assistance to another person because of her inability to exist independently. This is the first an increase in that benefit for the last 12 years. From now on, it amounts to 184
PLN 42 gr per month.

PLN 1065 – This is the amount of the most frequently paid retirement pension in the women’s population in March 2018. Among men, this figure was more than twice as high (2177 PLN 80 gr).

9% – Polish households with children for financial reasons do not celebrate family celebrations e.g. birthdays. Every tenth parent can’t afford to pay for school trips for his/her child. Every 40-th can’t afford to buy any toys, new clothes or books.

Full report:


I’m sure many of us pass her on the street, in the stairwell, on the way to the grocery store. Old, hunchbacked, wrinkled. Once mothers used to scare children with her: “If you don’t eat dinner, Baba Yaga will come and take you away”. She – Baba Yaga, about whom the little one knew from his book with pictures read to him by his father as good night story, that he devours naughty children. This is enough to make the imagination start working and in a few minutes nothing left on a plate after dinner. Baba Yaga has to stay hungry this time, too. Not because she likes to eat children. Ha! She once had her own children, whom she tried to give everything, what she could. Her children grew up, left her house, forgot about her. No one says to Baba Yaga “thank you” for the years spent caring for her children, nor does anyone reward her for the effort she put into raising another member of society. Years spent on hard work have left a mark on her health, which can be seen in every furrow decorating her face. She lives right next to us. Let us not forget about her, especially in winter and on holidays, when we sit down at the table. Poverty has the face of Baby Yaga and it is only up to us whether we see her as a sick old lady who needs help or as a demon to scare children.


“Crooked House”

Architects: Szczepan Szotyński, Maciej Łapkowski, Małgorzata Kruszko-Szotyńska, Leszek Zaleski, Anna Dubicka-Sawicka, Agnieszka Kolka, Robert Mielniczek, Sopot, Poland (Photo Aneta Głowacka, 25.05.2019)

Crooked House – was built in Sopot at 53 Bohaterów Monte Cassino Street, designed by architects Szotyński and Zaleski, inspired by drawings by Jan Marcin Szancer and Per Dahlberg. The construction of the “House” began in 2003 and was completed in 2004. The building is a part of the “Resident” Shopping Centre. On the ground floor there are commercial premises, a restaurant, bars, sushi, café Costa, a beauty and body Shape Garden modeling salon and a games room. The building is also the seat of the regional branch of Radio RMF FM and Radio RMF Maxxx.

(Source: Wikipedia)


Poland – my home. Once delightful with its beauty – now it stands slightly bent, a few windows have been crashed with baseball sticks, the parson has sat down in the living room and consumes all the household’s supplies without a moment of consideration, frightened children hide themselves in the corners so as not to be seen by the priest who sows fear and havoc. The son of the neighbours makes a big bang in the courtyard shouting: “Poland hasn’t died yet…” And only in the young woman’s breast does the wave of anger rise and she slowly clenches her hands in the fist… This is her house and she will make it clean! Her name is “In-de-pen-dent”!

“Silesian Insurgents’ Monument”

IMG_8713Sculptor Gustaw Zemła, architect Wojciech Zabłocki, Katowice, Poland (Photo: Gosia Sachse vel. Głowacka, 07.04.2018)

The Silesian Insurgents’ Monument (PolishPomnik Powstańców Śląskich) in Katowice, southern Poland, is a monument to those who took part in the three Silesian Uprisings of 1919, 1920 and 1921, which aimed to make the region of Upper Silesia part of the newly independent Polish state. The monument was unveiled on 1 September 1967, and was designed by sculptor Gustaw Zemła and architect Wojciech Zabłocki. The wings symbolize the three uprisings, and the names of places where battles were fought are etched on the vertical slopes. The monument was funded by the people of Warsaw for Upper Silesia.

The Silesian Uprisings (German: Aufstände in Oberschlesien; Polish: Powstania śląskie) were a series of three armed uprisings in Upper Silesia from 1919 to 1921 in which Poles and Polish Silesians sought to break away from Germany and join the new Polish Republic, founded after World War I. The rebellions have subsequently been commemorated as an example of Polish nationalism in modern Poland.

Much of Silesia had belonged to the Polish Crown in medieval times, but it passed to the Kings of Bohemia in the 14th century, then to the Austrian HabsburgsFrederick the Great of Prussia seized Silesia from Maria Theresa of Austria in 1742 in the War of Austrian Succession, after which it became a part of Prussia[2] and in 1871 the German Empire. Although the province had by now become overwhelmingly German speaking, a large Polish minority remained in Upper Silesia.[3][4][5]

Upper Silesia was bountiful in mineral resources and heavy industry, with mines and iron and steel mills. The Silesian mines were responsible for almost a quarter of Germany’s annual output of coal, 81 percent of its zinc and 34 percent of its lead.[6] After World War I, during the negotiations of the Treaty of Versailles, the German government claimed that, without Upper Silesia, it would not be able to fulfill its obligations with regard to reparations to the Allies.

First uprising (1919)

On 15 August 1919, German border guards (Grenzschutz) massacred ten Silesian civilians in a labour dispute at the Mysłowice mine (Myslowitzer Grube). The massacre sparked protests from the Silesian Polish miners, including a general strike of about 140,000 workers, and caused the First Silesian Uprising against German control of Upper Silesia. The miners demanded the local government and police become ethnically mixed to include both Germans and Poles.

About 21,000 Germans soldiers of the Weimar Republic‘s Provisional National  Army (Vorläufige Reichsheer), with about 40,000 troops held in reserve, quickly put down the uprising. The army’s reaction was harsh; and about 2,500 Poles were either hanged or executed by firing squad for their parts in the violence. Some 9,000 ethnic Poles sought refuge in the Second Polish Republic, taking along their family members. This came to an end when Allied forces were brought in to restore order, and the refugees were allowed to return later that year.

The Second Silesian Uprising (Polish: Drugie powstanie śląskie) was the second of three uprisings.

In February 1920, an Allied Plebiscite Commission was sent to Upper Silesia. It was composed of the representatives of the Allied forces, mostly from France, with smaller contingents from United Kingdom and Italy. Soon, however, it became apparent that the Allied forces were too few to maintain order; further, the Commission was torn apart by lack of consensus: the British and Italians favoured the Germans, while the French supported the Poles. Those forces failed to prevent continuing unrest.

In August 1920, a German newspaper in Upper Silesia printed what later turned out to be a false announcement of the fall of Warsaw to the Red Army in the Polish–Soviet War. Pro-German activists spontaneously organised a march to celebrate what they assumed would be the end of independent Poland. The volatile situation quickly degenerated into violence as pro-German demonstrators began looting Polish shops; the violence continued even after it had become clear that Warsaw had not fallen.

The violence eventually led on August 19 to a Polish uprising, which quickly took control of government offices in the districts of Kattowitz (Katowice), Pless (Pszczyna), Beuthen (Bytom). Between August 20 and 25, the rebellion spread to Königshütte (Chorzów), Tarnowitz (Tarnowskie Góry), Rybnik, Lublinitz (Lubliniec) and Gross Strehlitz (Strzelce Opolskie). The Allied Commission declared its intention to restore order but internal differences kept anything from being done. British representatives held the French responsible for the easy spread of the uprising through the eastern region.

The uprising was slowly brought to an end in September by a combination of allied military operations and negotiations between the parties. The Poles obtained the disbanding of the Sipo police and the creation of a new police (Abstimmungspolizei) for the area which would be 50% Polish. Poles were also admitted to the local administration. The Polish Military Organisation in Upper Silesia was supposed to be disbanded, though in practice this did not happen.

The Third Silesian Uprising (PolishTrzecie powstanie śląskie) was the last, largest and longest of the three uprisings. It included the Battle of Annaberg.

It began in the aftermath of a plebiscite that yielded mixed results. The British and French governments could not reach a consensus on the interpretation of the plebiscite. The primary problem was the disposition of the “Industrial Triangle” east of the Oder river, whose triangle ends were marked by the cities of Beuthen (Bytom), Gleiwitz (Gliwice) and Kattowitz (Katowice), all three of which were mostly inhabited by ethnic Germans. The French wanted to weaken Germany, and thus supported Polish claims on the territory; the British and the Italians disagreed, in part because the German government declared that a loss of the Silesian industries would render Germany incapable of paying the demanded war reparations.

In late April 1921, rumours spread that the British position would prevail. This caused the local Polish activists to organize another uprising. The insurrection was to begin in early in May. Having learned from previous failures, the Third Uprising was carefully planned and organized under the leadership of Wojciech Korfanty. It started on May 2–3, 1921, with the destruction of German rail bridges (see “Wawelberg Group“) in order to slow down the movement of German reinforcements. A particular concern was to prevent a recurrence of violent acts against Polish civilians by members of the Freikorpsdemobilised Imperial German army units that had refused to disband. These paramilitary units existed throughout Germany and usually acted independently from both the provisional official army and the leadership of the fledgling German Republic.

The Inter-Allied Commission, in which General Henri Le Rond was the most influential person, waited rather long before taking any steps to end the violence. The French troops generally favored the insurrection. In some cases, British and Italian contingents actively cooperated with Germans. UK Prime Minister Lloyd George‘s speech in the British Parliament, strongly disapproving of the insurrection, aroused the hopes of some Germans. But the Entente appeared to have no troops ready and available for dispatch. The only action the ‘Inter-Allied Military Control Commission’ and the French government made was demanding immediate prohibition of the recruiting of German volunteers from outside Upper Silesia, and this was promptly made public.

After the initial success of the insurgents in taking over a large portion of Upper Silesia, the German Grenzschutz several times resisted the attacks of Wojciech Korfanty‘s Polish troops, in some cases with the cooperation of British and Italian troops. An attempt on the part of the British troops to take steps against the Polish forces was prevented by General Jules Gratier, the French commander-in-chief of the Allied troops. Eventually, the insurgents kept most of territory they had won, including the local industrial district. They proved that they could mobilize large amounts of local support, while the German forces based outside Silesia were barred from taking an active part in the conflict.

Twelve days after the outbreak of the insurrection, Korfanty offered to take his troops behind a line of demarcation (the “Korfanty Line”), conditional on the released territory not being re-occupied by German forces, but by Allied troops. It was not, however, until July 1 that the British troops arrived in Upper Silesia and began to advance in company with those of the other Allies towards the former frontierSimultaneously with this advance the Inter-Allied Commission pronounced a general amnesty for the illegal actions committed during the insurrection, with the exception of acts of revenge and cruelty. The German Grenzschutz was withdrawn and disbanded.


August is the month of the uprisings: in 1944 the Warsaw Uprising, and 25 years earlier the First and Second Silesian Uprisings. Today we so often forget what ideals our ancestors fought for. We forget that they fought for freedom for all Poles and it did not matter what their skin colour, religion or sexual orientation was or was not. At that time, it was man who was important. What about today? Why today we listen so willingly to speeches full of hatred to imaginary enemy (like LGTB), why we have such short memory and do not remember (or do not want to remember) how fascism was born? Do we really want war? Do we want young boys and girls to die in the best time of their lives? Think about it before you let the others to get you into this self-destructive machine.