Christina of Bolsena, also known as Christina of Tyre, or in the Eastern Orthodox Church as Christina the Great Martyr, is venerated as a Christianmartyr of the 3rd century. Archaeological excavations of an underground cemetery constructed at her tomb have shown that she was venerated at Bolsena by the fourth century.
The existence of Christina herself is poorly attested. Some versions of her legend place her in Tyre (Phoenicia), other evidence points to Bolsena, an ancient town in central Italy, near an Etruscan site called Volsinium, with catacombs in which archeologists have found the remains of an early Christian church and the tomb of a female martyr. Inscriptions found on the site confirm that this martyr had a name like Christina and that the local community was venerating her as a saint by the end of the fourth century. Some corroborating evidence is provided by a sixth-century mosaic in the basilica of St. Apollinare Nuovo at Ravenna, which includes in its procession of virgins a saint named Christina, wearing a martyr’s crown.
Christina is an early virgin Christian martyr. By the ninth century, an account of her martyrdom was composed, which developed many variants. According to these, she was born either in Tyre (Eastern stories) or in Persia (Western stories) during the 3rd century or 5th century.
She was born into a rich family, and her father was governor of Tyre. By the age of 11 the girl was exceptionally beautiful, and many wanted to marry her. Christina’s father, however, envisioned that his daughter should become a pagan priestess. To this end he placed her in a special dwelling where he had set up many gold and silver idols, and he commanded his daughter to burn incense before them. Two servants attended Christina.Saint Christina giving her father’s idols of gold to the poor, 17th-century painting in the National Museum in WarsawMartyrdom of St Christina San Zanipolo Venice, Italy.
According to accounts, one time Christina was visited by an angel, who instructed her in the true faith. The angel called her a bride of Christ and told her about her future suffering. Christina smashed all the idols in her room and threw them out the window. In visiting his daughter, Christina’s father, Urbanus, asked her where all the idols had disappeared. Christina was silent. Then, having summoned the servants, Urbanus learned the truth from them.
Urbanus had his daughter tortured because of her faith, but God thwarted his efforts on several occasions. The nature of the torture varies with each telling, and can include iron hooks, grilling by fire, placement in a furnace, torture on the wheel, assault by snakes, assailment by arrows, and other assorted methods which she survives. After her father’s death, his successor, Dion, continued to torture her. Christina is eventually beheaded.
“The ‘grounding of girls in the virtues of womanhood’ has historically resulted in unchecked violence against women. They were merely helpless creatures exposed to violence and cruelty, including death. Any opposition or rebellion against the imposed patterns often ended tragically. If someone dreams of returning to the times and patterns of the rightfully past, he is a sadist with complexes, who cannot find his place in the contemporary world. The mere fact of wearing pants does not give absolute power over anyone or anything.
The sculpture is made of high-gloss stainless steel and stands 6.40 m tall. “Airborne” was designed for Linde AG, which moved to new premises here in 2008. The sculpture was manufactured and built by Sandmeir Stahlbau GmbH, Rain am Lech. In 2009 it was placed at the Carl-von-Linde-Haus, Angerhof in Munich. The sculpture represents a newly created molecule.
In the kinetic theory of gases, the term molecule is often used for any gaseous particle regardless of its composition. This violates the definition that a molecule contain two or more atoms, since the noble gases are individual atoms.
Molecules as components of matter are common. They also make up most of the oceans and atmosphere. Most organic substances are molecules. The substances of life are molecules, e.g. proteins, the amino acids they are made of, the nucleic acids (DNA & RNA), sugars, carbohydrates, fats, and vitamins. The nutrient minerals ordinarily are not molecules, e.g. iron sulfate.
However, the majority of familiar solid substances on Earth are not made of molecules. These include all of the minerals that make up the substance of the Earth, soil, dirt, sand, clay, pebbles, rocks, boulders, bedrock, the molten interior, and the core of the Earth. All of these contain many chemical bonds, but are not made of identifiable molecules.
In glasses, which are solids that exist in a vitreous disordered state, the atoms are held together by chemical bonds with no presence of any definable molecule, nor any of the regularity of repeating unit-cellular-structure that characterizes salts, covalent crystals, and metals.
The science of molecules is called molecular chemistry or molecular physics, depending on whether the focus is on chemistry or physics. Molecular chemistry deals with the laws governing the interaction between molecules that results in the formation and breakage of chemical bonds, while molecular physics deals with the laws governing their structure and properties. In practice, however, this distinction is vague. In molecular sciences, a molecule consists of a stable system (bound state) composed of two or more atoms. Polyatomic ions may sometimes be usefully thought of as electrically charged molecules. The term unstable molecule is used for very reactive species, i.e., short-lived assemblies (resonances) of electrons and nuclei, such as radicals, molecular ions, Rydberg molecules, transition states, van der Waals complexes, or systems of colliding atoms as in Bose–Einstein condensate.
The world is made up of molecules, me, you, inhabitants of other continents, non-heteronormative and hetero people, plants and animals. Together we form a coherent whole. By destroying a single piece of this puzzle, you in effect destroy yourself.
This monument is “dedicated to all deserters and refuseniks, whose home is Mother Earth, who recognize in the enemy the brother of man, who, instead of listening to generals, listen to their conscience, who cling not to ideologies but to life, whose fear is smaller than their love.”
On May 8 was the 76th anniversary of the end of World War II. Let us remember that war, as well as all other fratricidal wars. Let us not allow ourselves to be fooled by any ideologies, by speakers with mouths full of meaningless promises, whose aim is only to confuse neighbor with neighbor, brother with brother, mother with daughter. Let us respect each other. Let’s respect everyone who gives as much as they can every day to make this world a better place for all of us. Every ideology, whatever it may be, stupefies and strips away the dignity of some social group. It is by refusing to think for ourselves and not protesting when someone next to us gets hurt, we contribute to creating hell on earth. Let’s be strong, wise, and supportive to each other!
The housefly (Musca domestica) is a fly of the suborder Cyclorrhapha. It is believed to have evolved in the Cenozoic Era, possibly in the Middle East, and has spread all over the world as a commensal of humans. It is the most common fly species found in houses. Adults are gray to black, with four dark, longitudinal lines on the thorax, slightly hairy bodies, and a single pair of membranous wings. They have red eyes, set farther apart in the slightly larger female.
The female housefly usually mates only once and stores the sperm for later use. She lays batches of about 100 eggs on decaying organic matter such as food waste, carrion, or feces. These soon hatch into legless white larvae, known as maggots. After two to five days of development, these metamorphose into reddish-brown pupae, about 8 millimetres (3⁄8 inch) long. Adult flies normally live for two to four weeks, but can hibernate during the winter. The adults feed on a variety of liquid or semi-liquid substances, as well as solid materials which have been softened by their saliva. They can carry pathogens on their bodies and in their feces, contaminate food, and contribute to the transfer of food-borne illnesses, while, in numbers, they can be physically annoying. For these reasons, they are considered pests.
Ogden Nash‘s humorous two-line 1942 poem “God in His wisdom made the fly/And then forgot to tell us why.” indicates the debate about the value of biodiversity, given that even those considered by humans as pests have their place in the world’s ecosystems.
The appearance of insects, including flies, is an inseparable sign of the arrival of warmer days. This year, I think I’m going even to liking flies too, if only it means the end of winter, and the resulting reduction in colds and illnesses caused by viruses
Bardejov is a historic small Slovak town, whose square is inscribed on the UNESCO list. It is considered the most beautiful town in Slovakia with rich culture and magnificent architecture. Bardejov is also known as the Hangman’s Town, because, according to legend, there was once an executioner’s school here. Today in the old town we can see a statue of the Hangman, who guards the town and dispenses justice.
They say that the prince who ruled in medieval Bardejov issued a special decree that all dishonesty and thievery would be punished by death. The executioner in Bardejov was a well-known and respected person. It was believed that his authority came from God, in church he sat in a special bench near the altar.
Nowadays, the word “executioner” has a singular pejorative meaning. For victims of domestic violence in particular, the mere evocation of the image of their executioner in their minds causes various anxiety feelings. In this context the billboard slogan “Love each other mom and dad”, promoted by SYCHAR, which has flooded Polish cities in recent days, sounds like a slap in the face of the victims of domestic violence. The emotional manipulation that has been perpetrated in this billboard action is striking. For years, child psychologists have been making a clear diagnosis: for the proper development of a child, love and a sense of security are essential. These two things cannot be provided by a person who uses violence. It doesn’t matter, if it is a physical, psychological, financial, emotional or any other art of violence. Let us protect ourselves and our youngest children and run away from violent people as far as we can.
Throughout human history, traditional gender roles have often defined and limited women’s activities and opportunities; many religious doctrines stipulate certain rules for women. With restrictions loosening during the 20th century in many societies, women have gained access to careers beyond the traditional homemaker, and the ability to pursue higher education. Violence against women, whether within families or in communities, has a long history and is primarily committed by men. Some women are denied reproductive rights. The movements and ideologies of feminism have a shared goal of achieving gender equality.
For centuries, women’s bodies were used to make politics. There have been attempts to convince us that we as women:
we are less intelligent. And then Agnodike was born – the first known female gynecologist (4th century BC), Maria Skłodowska-Curie, Josephine Cochrane (invented and patented the world’s first dishwasher in 1886), Stephanie Kwolek (an outstanding chemist of Polish origin. She headed a team which in 1965 developed kevlar – a polymer extremely resistant to stretching. Thanks to its properties, it is used in the production of, among others, bulletproof vests and protective helmets, as well as fiber optic cables, motorcycles, bicycles, sails, skis, kayaks or tennis rackets), Françoise Barré-Sinoussi (French physician and virologist specializing in retrovirus research. In 1983, she and Luke Montagnier discovered the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome virus, HIV. She also identified this virus as the cause of AIDS. For these achievements she and Luke Montagnier received the Nobel Prize in 2008.), Maria Zakrzewska (1828 – 1902. She was the first woman in history to gain a doctor title in medicine.), Émilie du Châtelet (1706-1749. She was a physicist and mathematician, one of the greatest minds of the 18th century. She is considered the co-author of the principle of conservation of energy.), Margaret Hamilton (b. 1936. computer scientist and software engineer who led the development of the onboard system for the Apollo space program, NASA’s mission to the moon. She is famously pictured standing by a printout of the Apollo spacecraft flight guidance code, which she devised, mostly writing and supervising herself. Hamilton was 33 years old at the time.), Williamina Fleming (1857-1911. She was an astronomer and co-author of the star catalog. In 9 years she catalogued over 10,000 objects, several hundred of which she independently discovered.), Emma Noether (1882-1935. Albert Einstein considered her the most important woman in the history of mathematics and repeatedly sought her advice on his research.)
we are not good enough to make politics. And then Margaret Thatcher became a British Prime Minister. And in January 2021, Kamala Harris became the first female Vice President of the United States of America
we are incapable of strategic thinking. And Poland, under the leadership of male “strategists”, disappeared from the map of Europz for 123 years thanks to Tsarina Catherine II
banking and making money is a man’s job. And the year 1992 came, when Hanna Gronkiewicz-Walz became the Presidency of the National Bank of Poland for the next 9 years.
Following the barbaric verdict of the Polish dummy Constitutional Tribunal depriving Polish women of their right to self-determination about themselves and their lives, I have a short message for all those who passionately try to decide how the others should live: FUCK OFF TO YOUR OWN LIFE AND DON’T STEP IN YOUR DIRTY SHOES WHERE NOBODY INVITES YOU!!!
The sculpture is located in Ludwigstraße at the height of the Rupprecht bookstore. Initially, a fountain was planned here, which would have sprayed the water several meters into the air. However, the owners of the houses, who feared the noise of the water splashing onto the pavement, did not like this idea very much. Instead of a fountain, it was therefore decided to go for the “work of art with water” variant. The fountain was installed in the same year after a competition held in 2007. The work, made of granite and bronze, shows the relief of three fish jumping out of the water and a thoughtful man.
Recent months, apart from the fear of COVID-19 infection, have revealed one thing, and that is how easy it is to lose one’s sense of security, one’s life’s possessions, and how much interpersonal relation mean, relations with neighbors who have helped many of us during the forced quarantine. Those who had never cared to build lasting interpersonal ties suddenly began to feel lonely, and pubs that had been bustling with life died screaming with empty tables. Let’s take care of each other – also of the other inhabitants of our planet, if we don’t want to wake up in a reality in which our only audience will be constructions made of metal, reinforced concrete or glass.
The Artur Rubinstein monument is a part of the Gallery of Great Lodz citizens, which since 1999 has been adorning Piotrkowska Street with bronze outdoor sculptures standing on sidewalks, commemorating famous people associated with Lodz.
The monument was unveiled on 23 September 2000 on the occasion of the World Meeting of Lodz citizens. The author of the project is Marcel Szytenchelm. The monument was placed in front of the tenement house at 78 Piotrkowska Street, where once lived a famous pianist.
The bronze cast figure shows Arthur Rubinstein in a tailcoat, sitting at the piano, whose hands are supported by the keyboard. The raised flap of the instrument resembles a bird’s wing. Next to it, there is a cello key.
Artur Rubinstein’s family protested against the placement of the monument. On behalf of his family, the artist’s daughter Eva Rubinstein sent letters of protest to the City Hall of Lodz and the Chancellery of the Prime Minister of Poland, claiming that the form of the monument and its low artistic value offends the artist’s memory. Eva Rubinstein, due to the presence of the monument, refused to come to Lodz for 6 years to celebrate her father. Among the artists and music circles in Lodz, the sculpture also caused numerous controversies. There are plans to remove the existing monument and place in its place a more artistically valuable work dedicated to the same artist.
Originally, after inserting a coin into the mechanism hidden inside the monument, the device randomly played Chopin’s Concerto in F minor, Tchaikovsky’s Piano Concerto in B flat minor, Chopin’s Waltz in C sharp minor or Chopin’s Polonaise in A flat major. However, after interventions by Sony BMG, which demanded royalties for the played pieces, the piano went silent.
20.12.2020 marks the 28th anniversary of the death of an outstanding Polish pianist of Jewish origin.
Arthur Rubinstein lost almost his entire family to the Germans in World War II. As a sign of protest against German crimes, he never performed any concerts in Germany or the GDR. In 1945, during the ceremony of signing the United Nations Charter, in the absence of the Polish flag, he expressed his indignation and ostentatiously played Mazurka Dąbrowski. He preceded the performance with words:
“In this room, where great nations gathered to make this world a better place, I do not see the flag of Poland behind which this cruel war was waged.“
and he added:
“So now I will play the Polish national anthem.“
Art, music and patriotism have no nationality, ethnic origin, skin color, sexual orientation or religion. You can love and consider the country you live in as your homeland, take care of the good of the community and come from a completely different country. You can create beautiful music or art, which in the country of origin is not found in the audience, but outside its borders is sought after. All of us, regardless of where we come from, are one genre. Supporting each other we will achieve much more. Let’s not forget about it especially in these difficult times. All the most beautiful things for the upcoming holidays and stay healthy in the New Year.
This mural was created on the initiative of feminist organisations on a fragment of the Berlin Wall as an expression of opposition to the judgment of the Polish Constitutional Court of 22.10.2020, which tightened the rules of abortion and the penalization of women who want to have an abortion.
All-Poland Women’s Strike
Ogólnopolski Strajk Kobiet (the All-Poland Women’s Strike), is a women’s rights social movement in Poland, established in September 2016. It was set up in protest against the rejection by the Sejm of the Polish Parliament of the bill “Save Women”, which was considered by the Sejm in parallel to the project “Stop to Abortion”. The movement was responsible for the organization of Black Monday, a protest action that took place simultaneously in 147 Polish cities, towns and villages.
Structure and key people
In October 2017, Marta Lempart was head of All-Poland Women’s Strike.While OSK was a key organiser of the September 2016 Black Protests, the protests themselves were decentralised. Klementyna Suchanow was one of OSK’s leaders who proposed the 26 October “walk” to the house of de facto leader of Poland Jarosław Kaczyński, which turned into a 10,000-person protest. Suchanow described the tactics for the continuation of the protests as decentralised, up to grassroots initiatives and creativity.
Suchanow stated in October 2020 that OSK was not a political party, but that some members, aimed at becoming members of Sejm, the Polish lower house of parliament, and that Katarzyna Kotula [pl] of OSK was already a member of Sejm.
All-Poland Women’s Strike was created as one of the groups organising the September 2016 Black Protests against proposed legislation that would have tightened abortion law. The protests brought together 100,000 protests who marched in 143 villages, towns and cities in Poland. Together with Argentinian women’s rights activists, OSK helped launch the International Women’s Strike together with women from 28 other countries in 2017.
2017–present: Repression and continued protests
On 4 October 2017, following protests organised by OSK, police raided the offices of the Women’s Rights Centre and Baba in Warsaw, Gdańsk, Łódź and Zielona Góra. The raids were interpreted as intimidation. Marta Lempart, head of OSK, described the raids as “abuse of power” that disurpted the women’s work by the confiscation of computers and documents. The police spent nine hours in the office of Baba removing files.Strajk Kobiet booth at Woodstock Festival Poland in 2017
In July 2020, the Polish government considered withdrawal from the Istanbul Convention that aims to prevent violence against women and domestic violence. Two thousand women protested in front of the Ordo Iuris headquarters. Marta Lempart described the government’s attitude to women’s rights, stating, “This government has been laughing in the faces of victims of gender violence for years.” Marchers with a “women’s hell” hashtag and the OSK red lightning symbol on a banner, protesting on 24 October 2020 in Gdańsk.
the appointment of a “real” (independent, not someone from ruling party) Polish Ombudsman, to replace Adam Bodnar, who reached the end of his term.
On 28 October 2020, Klementyna Suchanow of OSK stated that the initial involvement of OSK in the protests was to defend women’s own rights, not to remove the government. She stated that the aims of the protests had expanded based on comments, slogans and wide discussions with people who had joined the protests.
Suchanow, who had been injured by police during protests in earlier years, leading to a spinal operation, interpreted a speech by Jarosław Kaczyński as a refusal to withdraw the Constitutional Tribunal ruling and an encouragement of escalation of violence.
The President of the Constitutional Tribunal, Julia Przyłębska, after a disgraceful verdict condemning Polish women to unimaginable suffering in case of pregnancy and defects of the fetus*, took refuge in the Przyłębski Villa in Berlin, where her husband is an ambassador on a daily basis.
After the activists of the “Dziewuchy Berlin” organization found her home, regular protests began at the Przyłębski’s house. The neighbors – broadly understood, because on quite a large area – received leaflets in which the organizers from the “Dziewuchy Berlin” collective apologize for the obstacles and explain their causes – who the addressee is, starting from the CT pacification and backstage placing her at the head of the dummy by the Law and Justice party, and ending with the essence, that is, that she set the fuse on fire and ran to the “peaceful haven in Berlin open to the world”
*according to the judgment of the Constitutional Tribunal of 22.10.2020, the provision of the law allowing for the removal of pregnancy in the case of severe damage to the fetus is inconsistent with the Polish Constitution.
(Quelle: Wikipedia, red. Ewa Wanat)
Below is the English language version:
“Dear citizens of Thielallee, dear fellow citizens, As you could see, your quiet, beautiful surroundings have changed in recent days into a place of loud protests and gatherings. You are probably wondering what this is about. We feel obliged to explain this to you. The case concerns your neighbors, the couple of Julia and Andrzej Przyłębski, who lived at number 79. Mr. Przyłębski has been the Polish ambassador to Germany for over four years. As a faithful ally of the ruling Polish right-wing-populist formation, he bears responsibility for the constant state of crisis in Polish-German relations. He has spoken out many times in a provocative and aggressive manner, which has contributed to the fact that both the friendship between the two countries and the difficult process of historical reconciliation are still encountering serious obstacles. However, it is not the reason for our presence in your neighbourhood. We mean his wife, Julia Przyłębska. In 2015, immediately after the right-wing populist party Law and Justice, led by Jaroslaw Kaczynski, took power, the process of destroying the independent justice system began. A very important link in the judicial system of control over lawmakers was the Constitutional Tribunal, which had the power to overrule unconstitutional laws and regulations. As a court of key importance to democracy, it became the object of a hostile, illegal takeover. With the help of legal tricks and illegal judicial appointments, soon the chair of the president of the TK was filled by an incompetent but loyal to the government judge, Julia Przyłębska, who was unknown to anyone before. She fulfilled her task. The Tribunal ceased to function properly as a supervisory body. The government is free to enact unconstitutional laws, and the average citizen has lost the support of the body that has so far defended his fundamental rights. One of these rights was taken away from the Polish people as a result of a very controversial verdict of that tribunal a few days ago. It was the right to terminate the pregnancy if a serious defect in the fetus was found. The tribunal suddenly annulled the law, which had lasted for over 25 years, when all major political forces in Poland made a difficult compromise. Millions of Polish women and men took to the streets in protest against this decision, despite the raging pandemic in our country. For over a week now, protests, gatherings and strikes have been taking place all over the country, as well as beyond its borders, against this inhuman, undemocratic verdict. The country has found itself in a state of dangerous confrontation between its citizens and an aggressive, ultra-conservative ruling formation that is increasingly resorting to threats of open violence in its defense. Julia Przyłębska set the powder keg on fire and immediately evacuated to Berlin. We cannot accept that the destroyer of democracy in our country lives peacefully outside its borders, in our common metropolis, open to the world. We, the proud citizens of Berlin, will not let “bloody Julia” continue to lead a comfortable, luxurious life in Germany while our homeland, set on fire by her, stands in flames. We therefore found her previously kept secret residence in Dahlem in order to regularly remind her of her deeds. As much as we are sorry to have disturbed your peace, we hope that we can count on your solidarity and understanding as our fellow citizens. We will make every effort to leave the place of our protests in order every time. We also hope that one day you will want to join us in an act of solidarity. Our gatherings are open and many Germans participate in them. After all, we are concerned about universal values: women’s rights, human rights and justice, directly threatened in one of the countries of our common European Union by Julia Przyłêbska’s actions.
With respect, Dziewuchy Berlin”.
The leaflets were distributed to many houses, service points, stores and an Italian restaurant where the ambassador is sometimes present. They were received with interest.
The series first premiered on Czechoslovak Television on October 6, 1968. The first season was shot in black and white, with the remainder of the series being shot in color. Due to its success, a second season spanning 13 episodes was produced in 1970.
In 2014, Česká televize announced plans to colorize the first season by 2017. However, only the first 7 episodes were colorized and shown during 2018, with a 16:9 format being added as well.
Once upon a time, low-growing people, commonly known as dwarves, who ruled others, aroused sympathy. And today?