“Silesian Insurgents’ Monument”

IMG_8713Sculptor Gustaw Zemła, architect Wojciech Zabłocki, Katowice, Poland (photo: Gosia Sachse vel. Głowacka, 07.04.2018)

The Silesian Insurgents’ Monument (PolishPomnik Powstańców Śląskich) in Katowice, southern Poland, is a monument to those who took part in the three Silesian Uprisings of 1919, 1920 and 1921, which aimed to make the region of Upper Silesia part of the newly independent Polish state. The monument was unveiled on 1 September 1967, and was designed by sculptor Gustaw Zemła and architect Wojciech Zabłocki. The wings symbolize the three uprisings, and the names of places where battles were fought are etched on the vertical slopes. The monument was funded by the people of Warsaw for Upper Silesia.

The Silesian Uprisings (German: Aufstände in Oberschlesien; Polish: Powstania śląskie) were a series of three armed uprisings in Upper Silesia from 1919 to 1921 in which Poles and Polish Silesians sought to break away from Germany and join the new Polish Republic, founded after World War I. The rebellions have subsequently been commemorated as an example of Polish nationalism in modern Poland.

Much of Silesia had belonged to the Polish Crown in medieval times, but it passed to the Kings of Bohemia in the 14th century, then to the Austrian HabsburgsFrederick the Great of Prussia seized Silesia from Maria Theresa of Austria in 1742 in the War of Austrian Succession, after which it became a part of Prussia[2] and in 1871 the German Empire. Although the province had by now become overwhelmingly German speaking, a large Polish minority remained in Upper Silesia.[3][4][5]

Upper Silesia was bountiful in mineral resources and heavy industry, with mines and iron and steel mills. The Silesian mines were responsible for almost a quarter of Germany’s annual output of coal, 81 percent of its zinc and 34 percent of its lead.[6] After World War I, during the negotiations of the Treaty of Versailles, the German government claimed that, without Upper Silesia, it would not be able to fulfill its obligations with regard to reparations to the Allies.

First uprising (1919)

On 15 August 1919, German border guards (Grenzschutz) massacred ten Silesian civilians in a labour dispute at the Mysłowice mine (Myslowitzer Grube). The massacre sparked protests from the Silesian Polish miners, including a general strike of about 140,000 workers, and caused the First Silesian Uprising against German control of Upper Silesia. The miners demanded the local government and police become ethnically mixed to include both Germans and Poles.

About 21,000 Germans soldiers of the Weimar Republic‘s Provisional National  Army (Vorläufige Reichsheer), with about 40,000 troops held in reserve, quickly put down the uprising. The army’s reaction was harsh; and about 2,500 Poles were either hanged or executed by firing squad for their parts in the violence. Some 9,000 ethnic Poles sought refuge in the Second Polish Republic, taking along their family members. This came to an end when Allied forces were brought in to restore order, and the refugees were allowed to return later that year.

The Second Silesian Uprising (Polish: Drugie powstanie śląskie) was the second of three uprisings.

In February 1920, an Allied Plebiscite Commission was sent to Upper Silesia. It was composed of the representatives of the Allied forces, mostly from France, with smaller contingents from United Kingdom and Italy. Soon, however, it became apparent that the Allied forces were too few to maintain order; further, the Commission was torn apart by lack of consensus: the British and Italians favoured the Germans, while the French supported the Poles. Those forces failed to prevent continuing unrest.

In August 1920, a German newspaper in Upper Silesia printed what later turned out to be a false announcement of the fall of Warsaw to the Red Army in the Polish–Soviet War. Pro-German activists spontaneously organised a march to celebrate what they assumed would be the end of independent Poland. The volatile situation quickly degenerated into violence as pro-German demonstrators began looting Polish shops; the violence continued even after it had become clear that Warsaw had not fallen.

The violence eventually led on August 19 to a Polish uprising, which quickly took control of government offices in the districts of Kattowitz (Katowice), Pless (Pszczyna), Beuthen (Bytom). Between August 20 and 25, the rebellion spread to Königshütte (Chorzów), Tarnowitz (Tarnowskie Góry), Rybnik, Lublinitz (Lubliniec) and Gross Strehlitz (Strzelce Opolskie). The Allied Commission declared its intention to restore order but internal differences kept anything from being done. British representatives held the French responsible for the easy spread of the uprising through the eastern region.

The uprising was slowly brought to an end in September by a combination of allied military operations and negotiations between the parties. The Poles obtained the disbanding of the Sipo police and the creation of a new police (Abstimmungspolizei) for the area which would be 50% Polish. Poles were also admitted to the local administration. The Polish Military Organisation in Upper Silesia was supposed to be disbanded, though in practice this did not happen.

The Third Silesian Uprising (PolishTrzecie powstanie śląskie) was the last, largest and longest of the three uprisings. It included the Battle of Annaberg.

It began in the aftermath of a plebiscite that yielded mixed results. The British and French governments could not reach a consensus on the interpretation of the plebiscite. The primary problem was the disposition of the “Industrial Triangle” east of the Oder river, whose triangle ends were marked by the cities of Beuthen (Bytom), Gleiwitz (Gliwice) and Kattowitz (Katowice), all three of which were mostly inhabited by ethnic Germans. The French wanted to weaken Germany, and thus supported Polish claims on the territory; the British and the Italians disagreed, in part because the German government declared that a loss of the Silesian industries would render Germany incapable of paying the demanded war reparations.

In late April 1921, rumours spread that the British position would prevail. This caused the local Polish activists to organize another uprising. The insurrection was to begin in early in May. Having learned from previous failures, the Third Uprising was carefully planned and organized under the leadership of Wojciech Korfanty. It started on May 2–3, 1921, with the destruction of German rail bridges (see “Wawelberg Group“) in order to slow down the movement of German reinforcements. A particular concern was to prevent a recurrence of violent acts against Polish civilians by members of the Freikorpsdemobilised Imperial German army units that had refused to disband. These paramilitary units existed throughout Germany and usually acted independently from both the provisional official army and the leadership of the fledgling German Republic.

The Inter-Allied Commission, in which General Henri Le Rond was the most influential person, waited rather long before taking any steps to end the violence. The French troops generally favored the insurrection. In some cases, British and Italian contingents actively cooperated with Germans. UK Prime Minister Lloyd George‘s speech in the British Parliament, strongly disapproving of the insurrection, aroused the hopes of some Germans. But the Entente appeared to have no troops ready and available for dispatch. The only action the ‘Inter-Allied Military Control Commission’ and the French government made was demanding immediate prohibition of the recruiting of German volunteers from outside Upper Silesia, and this was promptly made public.

After the initial success of the insurgents in taking over a large portion of Upper Silesia, the German Grenzschutz several times resisted the attacks of Wojciech Korfanty‘s Polish troops, in some cases with the cooperation of British and Italian troops. An attempt on the part of the British troops to take steps against the Polish forces was prevented by General Jules Gratier, the French commander-in-chief of the Allied troops. Eventually, the insurgents kept most of territory they had won, including the local industrial district. They proved that they could mobilize large amounts of local support, while the German forces based outside Silesia were barred from taking an active part in the conflict.

Twelve days after the outbreak of the insurrection, Korfanty offered to take his troops behind a line of demarcation (the “Korfanty Line”), conditional on the released territory not being re-occupied by German forces, but by Allied troops. It was not, however, until July 1 that the British troops arrived in Upper Silesia and began to advance in company with those of the other Allies towards the former frontierSimultaneously with this advance the Inter-Allied Commission pronounced a general amnesty for the illegal actions committed during the insurrection, with the exception of acts of revenge and cruelty. The German Grenzschutz was withdrawn and disbanded.

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August is the month of the uprisings: in 1944 the Warsaw Uprising, and 25 years earlier the First and Second Silesian Uprisings. Today we so often forget what ideals our ancestors fought for. We forget that they fought for freedom for all Poles and it did not matter what their skin colour, religion or sexual orientation was or was not. At that time, it was man who was important. What about today? Why today we listen so willingly to speeches full of hatred to imaginary enemy (like LGTB), why we have such short memory and do not remember (or do not want to remember) how fascism was born? Do we really want war? Do we want young boys and girls to die in the best time of their lives? Think about it before you let the others to get you into this self-destructive machine.

 

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“The Wonderful Adventures”

IMG-20180818-WA0011 ÖlandÖland, Sweden (fot. Gosia Sachse vel. Głowacka 18.08.2018)

The book is about a young lad, Nils Holgersson, whose “chief delight was to eat and sleep, and after that he liked best to make mischief”. He takes great delight in hurting the animals in his family farm. Nils captures a tomte in a net while his family is at church and have left him home to memorize chapters from the Bible. The tomte proposes to Nils that if Nils frees him, the tomte will give him a huge gold coin. Nils rejects the offer and the tomte turns Nils into a tomte, which leaves him shrunken and able to talk with animals, who are thrilled to see the boy reduced to their size and are angry and hungry for revenge.

(źródło: Wikipedia)

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The plot of another novel takes place in the first half of the 21st century. The protagonist of the story, 70-year-old Jarek, lives in a heavily guarded villa in one of the Polish metropolises. The old man has a bad character and does not listen to anyone: neither the disabled, nor teachers, lawyers, doctors and ordinary citizens. He fuels hatred, divides people who are starting to faight against each other and lies without end. Unfortunately, one day he steals the Golden Grail, which gives him great power over the inhabitants of his country. The old man is surrounded by faithful sorcerers who, with their spells, protect him from any consequences of his wicked conduct in the country he lives in. One day, an awful old man decides to deceive a foreigner. He does not realize, however, that behind this resident are powerful sorcerers from his country, who, using appropriate spells, turn the bad old man into a common man without Grail and bring him to the dock in a distant country, where the old man is to be tried for fraud. When the old man goes outside, the people who had previously been defenseless victims of his “games”, are now trying to take revenge on the defenseless old man…tbc..

“The World we know…”

Mercure Hotel Berlin_Basia Satchira 25.02.2018Mercure Hotel, Berlin, Germany (photo: Barbara Stachira, 25.02.2018)

This world we know is dying on our eyes…

There is no time – we have to act!

Between here and now,
The abyss hides
I’m closing this theater now,
I’m running off anywhere.

Actors were chosen by fate,
The cast was bad,
And the role of the sufler here
He’s not responding to us.
The next day, and the art
It’s the same title,
Who is there to fool tonight?
And what’s this game about?

Podobenství s Lebkou (Parable With Skull)

Praga maj 2018 fot. Peter Georg Kozdon 2 (mail 13.09.18).JPGSculptor: Jaroslav Róna, Prague, Czech Republic (Photo: Peter Georg Kożdoń, Mai 2018)

Jaroslav Róna, who also created the Franz Kafka statue nearby, is a rather prolific surrealist sculptor. In the 1980s he helped found the Czech art group Tvrdohlaví (The Stubborn). He built Podobenství s Lebkou, aka “Parable with Skull” in 1993, a bronze sculpture of a beggar weighed down by a large skull resides on a thick slab of aging wood.

The sculpture used to be found at the eastern end of the Golden Lane by Prague Castle’s Daliborka Tower, where Dalibor of Kozojedy, known as the Robin Hood of Czechia, was said to have played the violin while waiting out his days.

Parable with Skull is based on one of Kafka’s characters—the “beggar, who, with the death rattle already in his throat, insists on dying on the doorstep” from The Bucket Rider. The sculpture tends to intrigue and even confuse those who visit the castle without prior knowledge of Róna’s surrealist works. There’s also a surprise at the rear end of the statue: the beggar’s dangling bronze testicles are displayed quite prominently, often shocking admirers of the piece.

Prague is a city known for its strange public sculptures, and Róna’s are among the strangest, but Parable with Skull isn’t a public work. To see the strange crawling man, one must pay admission to tour Prague Castle.

(Source: https://www.atlasobscura.com)

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Elections to the European Parliament will take place on 26th May. Let us not be like this beggar and let us not to allow the democracy in Poland to die on the doorstep of our home, which is a united Europe. Let us go to elections and vote for wise and responsible people. Enough demagogy and manipulation!

Mural “Books”

Mural Utrecht Marta Piatkowska marzec 2019.jpgArtist: Jan Is De Man, Deef Feed Utrecht, Netherlanden (Photo: Jan Is De Man, March, 2019)

 Jan Is De Man and Deef Feed have asked people from the neighborhood to hand in their most precious book so that he can process it in this mural.
After a week of hard work they have finished an interactive wall painting, on which many nationalities and different tastes regarding literature are shown in a closet.

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On 31.03.2019 Catholic priests in Poland have burned books that they say promote sorcery, including one of JK Rowling’s Harry Potter novels, in a ceremony they photographed and posted on Facebook.

Three priests in the northern city of Koszalin were pictured carrying the books in a large basket from inside a church to a stone area outside. The books were set alight as prayers were said and a small group of people watched on. A mask, various trinkets and a Hello Kitty umbrella were also visible in the pictures of the makeshift bonfire.

more here: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/apr/01/harry-potter-among-books-burned-by-priests-in-poland?

“Where books burn, soon people will also burn.”

-Heinrich Heine-

Books are a source of knowledge. Knowledge gives power. I express my loud protest against any attempts to discourage the society from asking questions and having own independent unindoctrinated worldview. Knowledge rescues life – imbecility deprives it.

 

“Slight Uncertainty”

Peter Georg Kozdon Praga maj 2018 (mail 23.01.19)Artist: Michal Trpak, Prague, Czech Republic (Photo: Peter Georg Kozdon, Mai 2018)

This sculpture, located at the crossroad of Na zbořenci and Odborů in the Praga district called Nové Město, is part of bigger composition “Slight Uncertainty” done by Michal Trpák.  In his installation artist puts a philosophical spin on the Mary Poppins flight by umbrella. The piece features many cement figures hanging dearly onto open umbrellas in a rainbow’s spectrum of colors, all of the individuals floating in an atrium-type space in the EBC office center in Prague. Uncertainty rests in the state of being, whether these figures are anticipating a rise – or even descent – with excitement or perhaps dread. The contrast of the heavy, material concrete contrasts the situational lightness captured by the installation. One thing that is certain: the dreamlike, thought-provoking, and inspirational effect of the colorful umbrellas.

(Source: https://www.gessato.com/slight-uncertainty-by-michal-trpak/)

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Today is the International Women’s Day. To all women and the men standing by their side, strength and perseverance in the fight for their rights.

“Couple in love”

WP_20160716_16_45_33_ProRosengarten, Werda, Germany (photo: Gosia Sachse vel.Głowacka, 16.07.2016)

On the occasion of today’s Valentin’s day for all lucky people even more happiness, and those less lucky ones I tap on a glass of wine and let go of a cheerful eye 😉

Love is a real chemical-biological chain reaction! In order for the whole system of external stimuli and internal biochemical processes to “sparkle” between two people, the whole system of external stimuli and internal biochemical processes must work in the right order.
Visionaries? Students? No, smokers

It all starts with the smell. And it’s not about perfume or a gym shower. What is important is the natural scent and, probably, the odourless pheromones hidden in it. Their existence in humans is not yet exhaustively researched by science. In any case, the smell reaches the nose, where it encounters a very sensitive blade and nose organ. This, in turn, activates the hypothalamus, a small area in the brain. If everything “fits together”, we start to be interested in our partner and our grey cells start to shine (this can be seen during positron emission tomography (PET) examination). The hypothalamus begins to produce phenylethylamine (PEA), which is a neurotransmitter. Its elevated concentration in the brain on the one hand manifests itself in states of unjustified joy, self-confidence, excitement or excessive activity alternately with a lack of concentration.
On the other hand, it causes insomnia, anorexia, shortness of breath, anxiety and depression. This is how often drug addicts feel – phenylethylamine is a substance belonging to the group of amphetamines. No wonder that it is commonly called “a drug of love”. The increase in the level of PEA entails further changes. The secretion of noradrenalin – a hormone called “love substance” – increases. It works similarly to adrenaline – at the sight of a loved one our blood pressure increases, heartbeat accelerates, blood glucose levels rise and appetite decreases. As a result of shrinkage of blood vessels, we cover ourselves with a blush and become sensitive to touch.
The secret of happiness
 
As the level of noradrenaline increases, another compound, the “happiness hormone”, or dopamine, begins to release.  It completely masters the rest of the senses and the body. It is responsible for chemical processes taking place in the brain, which control the movement and activity of the body and the ability to feel pleasure.  We know dopamine from everyday life, because its level grows rapidly when we admire a new gadget, a spectacular dress or an unpacked gift. It is dopamine that is co-responsible for the fact that we love “to death and life”. The second molecule in this duo is serotonin. When the level of dopamine increases, the amount of serotonin decreases rapidly at the same time. It is responsible for a healthy sleep and a sense of peace, and its deficiencies cause a general discomfort and lack of concentration. A person in love gets confused and falls into extreme moods, while at the same time waiting for the next meeting with their other half.
Love has an expiry date

So we have phenylethylamine (PEA), noroadrenaline, dopamine and serotonin -neuroprogens that make us go crazy out of love. The most important of them is the former because it controls the others. Unfortunately, the body becomes immune to phenylethylamine. Research shows that usually between 18 and 48 months (4 years) of the relationship, the whole raging fire of love slowly burns out and dies out. Then the lovers can even part! Fortunately, this is not the rule. As a result of dopamine, all the time our body produces oxytocin and vasopressin – hormones of similar structure, but different effects. These compounds work in very important moments for man. There are more oxytocin receptors in women. This hormone relieves stress, lowers blood pressure, has an analgesic and relaxing effect. In men, vasopressin, released by testosterone and acting like adrenaline, dominates. Increased levels of these two hormones evoke a feeling of relaxation, peace, feeling of bond and mutual acceptance.  Thanks to their presence it is possible for mature love between partners to flourish.

(source: http://www.national-geographic.pl/nauka)

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Let peoplelove each other: who they want and how they want, because love brings goodness

“The Sound of Silence”

wp_20170818_11_13_51_proJan of Tarnov with his son Jan; Jan Wagner; Bardejov, Slovakia (photo: Gosia Sachse, 18.08.2017)

The „Urban“ church bell
The original bell was made from older material in 1584 and was cast by a bell maker Jan of Tarnov and his son Jan. The latin inscription of the bell shows that it was duping during the reign of Rudolf II in 1685. The bell cracked and an unknown bell-maker recast it in its original form. The bell diameter is 162 cm. Its height without the headpiece is 135 cm and it weighs 4000 kg

The „Jan“ church bell
A gothic church bell from 1486. The old German inscription on the bell says that it was made by master Jan Wagner of Spišská Nová Ves, to honour the Lord, the Virgin Mary and Saint Giles. The Bell is 140 cm. in diameter and 120 cm. tall (without its headpiece), and it weighs 2200 kg. It was cast right in Bardejov, and served the church and the town continuously until 1990

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14.01.2019 at 14:30 The big heart stopped and everything died away … The second heart on the news about it burst and the world became silent …

To memorize of the tragically deceased President of my beloved city of Gdańsk, Paweł Adamowicz (*02.11.1965 – †14.01.2019)

The Sound of Silence

 

Simon & Garfunkel

Hello darkness, my old friend                                                                                          I’ve come to talk with you again
Because a vision softly creeping
Left its seeds while I was sleeping
And the vision that was planted in my brain
Still remains
Within the sound of silence

In restless dreams I walked alone
Narrow streets of cobblestone
‚Neath the halo of a street lamp
I turned my collar to the cold and damp
When my eyes were stabbed by the flash of a neon light
That split the night
And touched the sound of silence

And in the naked light I saw
Ten thousand people, maybe more
People talking without speaking
People hearing without listening
People writing songs that voices never share
No one dared
Disturb the sound of silence

„Fools” said I, „You do not know
Silence like a cancer grows
Hear my words that I might teach you
Take my arms that I might reach you”
But my words like silent raindrops fell
And echoed in the wells of silence

And the people bowed and prayed
To the neon god they made
And the sign flashed out its warning
In the words that it was forming

And the sign said, „The words of the prophets

Are written on the subway walls
And tenement halls”
And whispered in the sounds of silence

“Victims of Communism Memorial Monument”

Prague 119Sculptor: Olbram Zoubek, architects: Zdenek Hoelzl and Jan Kerel; Prague, Czech Republic (Photo: Gosia Sachse (Głowacka); 16.08.2013)

The memorial unveiled in May 2002 by sculptor Olbram Zoubek and architects Zdenek Hoelzl and Jan Kerel consists of seven more or less fragmentary human figures symbolising political prisoners of communism. They stand on a staircase leading up the slope of Petrin hill in Prague’s historical centre on the left bank of the Vltava river.

(Quelle: https://www.alamy.com)

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13 Dezember 1981 – we remember…

“Monument to memorize of the bombing victims in 1944 in San Marino”

Jolanta KruszkaSan Marino, Italy (Photo: Jolanta Kruszka, 22.09.2018)

The monument was created to commemorate 63 victims of British bombings during World War II. During the war San Marino was officially neutral, but when the German forces used the state for the passage of troops, the Allied forces followed them. The Allied forces occupied San Marino only for as long as was necessary militarily, and it took only a few weeks. Many inhabitants of the republic joined the ranks of Italian anti-fascist partisans. As a result of the war in Italy, the city became a victim of British bombardments, which caused damage estimated at three billion liras, as well as 63 victims. Hunger and disease, including tuberculosis and typhoid fever, were widespread in the country.

(Source: Wikipedia)

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Today is exactly 100 years since Poland regained its independence. This freedom did not come alone and would not knock on our door. To win it, several generations of Poles lost their life in the uprisings: Listopadowym i Styczniowym as well as during the First World War. After 123 years, Poland has returned to the map of Europe. The most important creators of Polish independence were Marshal Józef Piłsudski in 1918 and Lech Wałęsa in 1989. The task and their roles in history was not easy. Thanks to their charisma and wisdom, as well as the involvement of millions of Polish women and men, we have managed to regain what is the greatest value in life: freedom. Together we are stronger, divided, we can lose everything.

This year also passes 100 years from giving women’s electoral rights. Because freedom and independence is a woman!